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Kops Deep Dive: HA Masters, Private Networking and Bastion Support, Manage Multiple Instance groups and Labels

Amiram Shachar
Spotinst, Founder and CEO

Following our recent blog post, how to use Kops with Elastigroup.
We’ve explained how to download and install Kops and provided a set of commands for installing, operating, updating and deleting Kuberenetes clusters in Spotinst.

Please download the following tar file, which contains a set of commands that we will be using in that blog post.

In this blog, we will deep dive into Kops, we’ll create Highly-Available k8s Masters, set up a k8s cluster using private subnets for networking and will operate that cluster using a Bastion server. We’ll also edit and create new Instance Groups and set custom labels.

All worker nodes will be running as highly-available EC2 Spot Instances, allowing you to save up to 90% of your compute costs.

Before getting started, Please download and install Kops using this link

Create The k8s Cluster

. 00-env.sh && kops create cluster \
    --name $KOPS_CLUSTER_NAME \
    --zones $KOPS_CLUSTER_ZONES \
    --cloud $KOPS_CLOUD_PROVIDER \
    --master-size $KOPS_MASTER_SIZE \
    --master-count $KOPS_MASTER_COUNT \
    --node-size $KOPS_NODE_SIZE \
    --spotinst-cloud-provider $SPOTINST_CLOUD_PROVIDER \
    --kubernetes-version $KOPS_KUBERNETES_VERSION \
    --logtostderr --v 2 \
    --topology $KOPS_TOPOLOGY \
    --bastion \
    --networking calico \
    --yes

Please note the --topology private--networking calico and --bastion flags which means that our cluster will be created using private subnets in a VPC, using the calico network driver (the most common one) and for management access, we will use the bastion server to access the worker nodes.

amirams$ ./01-create.sh
I1227 15:21:14.793955   57381 s3context.go:163] Found bucket "kops-statestore" in region "us-east-1"
I1227 15:21:14.794006   57381 s3fs.go:176] Reading file "s3://kops-statestore/stav.ek8s.com/config"
I1227 15:21:15.277178   57381 channel.go:93] resolving "stable" against default channel location "https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes/kops/master/channels/"
I1227 15:21:15.277214   57381 channel.go:98] Loading channel from "https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes/kops/master/channels/stable"
I1227 15:21:15.277460   57381 context.go:140] Performing HTTP request: GET https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes/kops/master/channels/stable
I1227 15:21:15.712665   57381 channel.go:107] Channel contents: spec:
  images:
...
...
...

I1227 15:24:06.017173   57381 privatekey.go:157] Parsing pem block: "RSA PRIVATE KEY"
I1227 15:24:06.017757   57381 s3fs.go:176] Reading file "s3://kops-statestore/stav.ek8s.com/secrets/kube"
I1227 15:24:06.129402   57381 loader.go:357] Config loaded from file /Users/amirams/.kube/config
Kops has set your kubectl context to stav.ek8s.com

Cluster is starting.  It should be ready in a few minutes.


The cluster has been created.

Now, we should expect to see in our Spotinst console 5 Elastigroups starting

  • bastions.stav.ek8s.com – On-Demand
  • master-us-east-1a-1.masters.stav.ek8s.com – On-Demand
  • master-us-east-1b-1.masters.stav.ek8s.com – On-Demand
  • master-us-east-1c-1.masters.stav.ek8s.com – On-Demand
  • nodes.stav.ek8s.com – Spot Instances

Let’s wait for a couple of minutes, and validate the cluster

amirams$. 00-env.sh && kops validate cluster
Using cluster from kubectl context: stav.ek8s.com

Validating cluster stav.ek8s.com

INSTANCE GROUPS
NAME			ROLE	MACHINETYPE				MIN	MAX	SUBNETS
bastions		Bastion	m3.medium				1	1	utility-us-east-1a,utility-us-east-1b
master-us-east-1a-1	Master	m4.large				1	1	us-east-1a
master-us-east-1a-2	Master	m4.large				1	1	us-east-1a
master-us-east-1b-1	Master	m4.large				1	1	us-east-1b
nodes			Node	m4.large,m3.large,c4.large,c3.large	2	2	us-east-1a,us-east-1b

NODE STATUS
NAME				ROLE	READY
ip-172-20-38-156.ec2.internal	node	True
ip-172-20-51-72.ec2.internal	master	True
ip-172-20-58-136.ec2.internal	master	True
ip-172-20-75-131.ec2.internal	node	True
ip-172-20-89-110.ec2.internal	master	True

Your cluster stav.ek8s.com is ready

Edit Instance Group and Add Custom Labels

Let’s now go over the commands and sequence that needed for Editing an existing instance-group and then adding custom labels to it.

Edit Instance Group:

. 00-env.sh && kops edit ig nodes \
    --name $KOPS_CLUSTER_NAME \
    --state $KOPS_STATE_STORE \
    --logtostderr --v 2

This command will download the cluster state from s3, and open a vim terminal to make the changes to the default instance-group called “nodes

apiVersion: kops/v1alpha2
kind: InstanceGroup
metadata:
  creationTimestamp: 2017-12-27T23:21:17Z
  labels:
    kops.k8s.io/cluster: stav.ek8s.com
    tasks: cpu
  name: nodes
spec:
  image: kope.io/k8s-1.7-debian-jessie-amd64-hvm-ebs-2017-12-02
  machineType: m4.large,m3.large,c4.large,c3.large
  maxSize: 2
  minSize: 2
  role: Node
  subnets:
  - us-east-1a
  - us-east-1b

I’ve added the row tasks: cpu to distinguish that these nodes are CPU nodes

I1227 16:31:20.271698   59454 s3fs.go:176] Reading file "s3://kops-statestore/stav.ek8s.com/instancegroup/nodes"
I1227 16:31:20.759049   59454 s3fs.go:113] Writing file "s3://kops-statestore/stav.ek8s.com/instancegroup/nodes"
I1227 16:31:20.759106   59454 s3fs.go:133] Calling S3 PutObject Bucket="kops-statestore" Key="stav.ek8s.com/instancegroup/nodes"

Update Cluster

As you can see from the output log, the changes have been store to the s3 state bucket, but have not yet updated in the kops cluster. In order to apply the update, let’s run:

amiram$ . 00-env.sh && kops update cluster \
    --name $KOPS_CLUSTER_NAME \
    --state $KOPS_STATE_STORE \
    --logtostderr --v 2 \
    --yes

Now it actually updating the cluster, and applying the new configuration to the resources.

I1227 16:34:48.405533   59588 s3context.go:163] Found bucket "kops-statestore" in region "us-east-1"
I1227 16:34:48.405581   59588 s3fs.go:176] Reading file "s3://kops-statestore/stav.ek8s.com/config"
I1227 16:34:48.866690   59588 s3fs.go:213] Listing objects in S3 bucket "kops-statestore" with prefix "stav.ek8s.com/instancegroup/"
...
...
...
..
I1227 16:35:05.069416   59588 loader.go:357] Config loaded from file /Users/amirams/.kube/config
Kops has set your kubectl context to stav.ek8s.com

Cluster changes have been applied to the cloud.


Changes may require instances to restart: kops rolling-update cluster

Rolling Updates

Following the output, there are changes that might require a rolling-update command. so in order to complete that update, we will have to roll the configuration to the nodes, using the following command:

. 00-env.sh && kops rolling-update cluster \
    --name $KOPS_CLUSTER_NAME \
    --state $KOPS_STATE_STORE \
    --node-interval 30s \
    --instance-group $KOPS_IG_NAME \
    --logtostderr --v 2 \
    --yes

The cluster will now roll that new configuration on the nodes in the cluster using a graceful draining timeout one by one and will wait for 1m30s for pods to stabilize after draining.

I1227 16:39:55.831359   59732 s3context.go:163] Found bucket "kops-statestore" in region "us-east-1"
I1227 16:39:55.831416   59732 s3fs.go:176] Reading file "s3://kops-statestore/stav.ek8s.com/config"
I1227 16:39:56.719417   59732 loader.go:357] Config loaded from file /Users/amirams/.kube/config
I1227 16:39:56.722515   59732 round_trippers.go:417] curl -k -v -XGET  -H "Accept: application/json, */*" -H "User-Agent: kops/v1.8.1 (darwin/amd64) kubernetes/$Format" -H "Authorization: Basic YWRtaW46T2l4SHlJdDdQd1hoNEFQRFNUMU1nN3hYTER0Vk9ueWo=" https://api.stav.ek8s.com/api/v1/nodes
I1227 16:39:57.143345   59732 round_trippers.go:436] GET https://api.stav.ek8s.com/api/v1/nodes 200 OK in 420 milliseconds
...
..
..
..
I1227 16:44:14.190938 59732 instancegroups.go:212] Cluster validated.
I1227 16:44:14.190967 59732 rollingupdate.go:191] Rolling update completed for cluster "stav.ek8s.com"!

Create a new Instance Group

If we want to create an additional instance-group for different labeling purposes, or just to distinguish between different environments, we will use the following sequence.

. 00-env.sh && kops create ig nodesmore \
    --name $KOPS_CLUSTER_NAME \
    --state $KOPS_STATE_STORE \
    --role node \
    --subnet us-east-1a \
    --logtostderr --v 2

That command will open a vim terminal to verify the instance-group configuration before creating the instance group

apiVersion: kops/v1alpha2
kind: InstanceGroup
metadata:
  creationTimestamp: null
  name: nodesmore
spec:
  image: kope.io/k8s-1.7-debian-jessie-amd64-hvm-ebs-2017-12-02
  machineType: m3.medium
  maxSize: 2
  minSize: 2
  role: Node
  subnets:
  - us-east-1a
:wq!

Save and exit the terminal will trigger the instance-group creation

I1227 16:47:22.295511   59934 editor.go:127] Opening file with editor [vi /var/folders/rq/jqlbr35d6gg3_bjhwgzdjm3m0000gn/T/kops-edit-8augbyaml]
I1227 16:48:42.413855   59934 s3fs.go:176] Reading file "s3://kops-statestore/stav.ek8s.com/instancegroup/nodesmore"
I1227 16:48:47.824308   59934 s3fs.go:113] Writing file "s3://kops-statestore/stav.ek8s.com/instancegroup/nodesmore"
I1227 16:48:47.824387   59934 s3fs.go:133] Calling S3 PutObject Bucket="kops-statestore" Key="stav.ek8s.com/instancegroup/nodesmore" SSE="AES256" ACL="" BodyLen=276

Please note, again, that it did not actually create the instance-group, it just updates the kops-state bucket with that new config. In order to trigger the instance-group creation, we should run kops update cluster command.

. 00-env.sh && kops update cluster \
    --name $KOPS_CLUSTER_NAME \
    --state $KOPS_STATE_STORE \
    --logtostderr --v 2 \
    --yes

Now, the instance-group nodesmore is created. We can see the logs, and notice a new Elastigroup that has been created in the Spotinst console.

I1227 16:46:50.465018   59917 s3context.go:163] Found bucket "kops-statestore" in region "us-east-1"
I1227 16:46:50.465052   59917 s3fs.go:176] Reading file "s3://kops-statestore/stav.ek8s.com/config"

Kops has set your kubectl context to stav.ek8s.com

Cluster changes have been applied to the cloud.

 

That’s it!

Summary

This post explained how to manage a Kubernetes cluster on Spotinst using kops.
Try starting a cluster, create a few Kubernetes resources, add labels, instance groups and then tear it down.

Best,

Amiram.

 

Amiram Shachar
Spotinst, Founder and CEO