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Elasticsearch on Spot Instances – Step by Step

Amiram Shachar
Spotinst, Founder and CEO

At Spotinst, we must drink our own champagne before we release our stuff to customers. Being a cost-centric company, we’re trying hard to deploy every possible service on Spot Instances using Elastigroup.

I had the opportunity to chat this week with my colleague Alex Friedman who leads our DevOps, I asked Alex how do we run our massive Elastic (ElasticSearch) clusters on Spot Instances. We are using Elastic’s built-in features for high-availability, storing data on EBS disks to maintain the Elastic data and state as well as using Elastigroup for a smooth EC2 Spot migration and management, which helps us to dramatically cut our cost, scale faster, and even become more highly-available. (I don’t know how many of you have lost Elastic nodes and managed to recover within a few minutes, with no performance or data loss, Alex did!)

I’ve asked Alex to put together a guide how we’re using it internally, and I’m happy to share that with you.

Let’s jump into the details, here are the High-Level steps, we’ll discuss;

  • Deploy Elastigroup for ElasticSearch Master nodes. (Start cerebro for monitoring on one of the master servers)
  • Deploy Elastigroup for ElasticSearch Data nodes. (Use IPs of the Master nodes in the config)

Elastigroup for ElasticSearch Master Nodes

Create a new Stateful Elastigroup for the Master Nodes

Important Configurations

AZs/Subnets: Be aware of Cross-AZ cost when choosing multiple AZs, especially if ES replication is going to be enabled.

Instance type: Memory oriented types,R3R4 are preferable due to ES’s high memory consumption

AMI: In this example I use Amazon Linux 2 LTS Candidate 2

Elastigroup Stateful Settings: Find available private IPs in your vpc/subnet(s) and use them in the Assign Specific Private IPs option (As we want to keep static addresses for the Master nodes)

Master user data:

  • Installs ES, Java from internet repos
  • The variable device="/dev/xvdc" should match the EBS deviceName configuration as explained later below.
#!/usr/bin/env bash

device="/dev/xvdc"
data_path="/var/lib/elasticsearch"
sleep_sec=10
elastic_pckg="elasticsearch-6.2.4-1.noarch"
logical_volume="lv_elastic01"
volume_group="vg_elastic01"
device_lv="/dev/${volume_group}/${logical_volume}"



function install_java
{
   echo "Install jdk"
   rpm_file_src="http://download.oracle.com/otn-pub/java/jdk/8u131-b11/d54c1d3a095b4ff2b6607d096fa80163/jdk-8u131-linux-x64.rpm"
   rpm_file_dest="/tmp/jdk-8u131-linux-x64.rpm"
   wget --no-check-certificate --no-cookies --header "Cookie: oraclelicense=accept-securebackup-cookie" -O "$rpm_file_dest" "$rpm_file_src"
   rpm -Uvh "$rpm_file_dest"
}

function install_es
{
   echo "Install elasticsearch"
   cat > /etc/yum.repos.d/elasticsearch.repo << 'EOF'
[elasticsearch-6.x]
name=Elasticsearch repository for 6.x packages
baseurl=https://artifacts.elastic.co/packages/6.x/yum
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=https://artifacts.elastic.co/GPG-KEY-elasticsearch
enabled=1
autorefresh=1
type=rpm-md
EOF

   yum install $elastic_pckg -y

   echo "Update elasticsearch config"
   cat > /etc/elasticsearch/elasticsearch.yml << 'EOF'
# ======================== Elasticsearch Configuration =========================
# ---------------------------------- Cluster -----------------------------------
# Use a descriptive name for your cluster:
cluster.name: es-test
# ------------------------------------ Node ------------------------------------
node.name: ${HOSTNAME}
node.master: true
node.data: false
node.ingest: false
search.remote.connect: false
# ----------------------------------- Paths ------------------------------------
# Path to directory where to store the data (separate multiple locations by comma):
path.data: /var/lib/elasticsearch
# Path to log files:
path.logs: /var/log/elasticsearch
# ---------------------------------- Network -----------------------------------
# Set the bind address to a specific IP (IPv4 or IPv6):
network.host: 0.0.0.0
# --------------------------------- Discovery ----------------------------------
#
# Pass an initial list of hosts to perform discovery when new node is started:
# The default list of hosts is ["127.0.0.1", "[::1]"]
discovery.zen.ping.unicast.hosts: ["10.14.11.70", "10.14.11.71", "10.14.11.72"]

# Prevent the "split brain" by configuring the majority of nodes (total number of master-eligible nodes / 2 + 1):
discovery.zen.minimum_master_nodes: 2
EOF

   ## Update jvm Xmx/Xms according to inst. type
   #grep Xm /etc/elasticsearch/jvm.options
}

function install_cerebro
{
   echo "Install Docker"
   kernel_installed=$(uname -r)
   if [[ "$kernel_installed" =~ .*amzn.* ]]; then
       yum install docker-17.06.2ce-1.102.amzn2.x86_64 -y
   else
       echo "Amazon Linux is required, not installing docker/cerebro"
   fi

}



function handle_mounts
{
   echo "Wait until we have the EBS attached (new or reattached)"
   ls -l "$device" > /dev/null
   while [ $? -ne 0 ]; do
       echo "Device $device is still NOT available, sleeping..."
       sleep $sleep_sec
       ls -l "$device" > /dev/null
   done
   echo "Device $device is available"


   echo "Check if the instance is new or recycled"
   lsblk "$device" --output FSTYPE | grep LVM > /dev/null
   if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then
       echo "Device $device is new, creating LVM & formatting"

       pvcreate "$device"
       pvdisplay

       vgcreate vg_elastic01 "$device"
       vgdisplay

       lvcreate -l 100%FREE -n "$logical_volume" "$volume_group"
       lvdisplay

       mkfs -t ext4 $device_lv
   else
       echo "Device $device was reattached"
   fi

   echo "Add to entry to fstab"
   UUID=$(blkid $device_lv -o value | head -1)
   echo "UUID=$UUID $data_path    ext4 _netdev 0 0" >> /etc/fstab


   echo "Make sure mount is available"
   mount -a > /dev/null
   while [ $? -ne 0 ]; do
       echo "Error mounting all filesystems from /etc/fstab, sleeping..."
       sleep 2;
       mount -a > /dev/null
   done
   chown -R elasticsearch:elasticsearch "$data_path"
   echo "Mounted all filesystems from /etc/fstab, proceeding"
}

function start_apps
{
   echo "Start elasticsearch"
   systemctl start elasticsearch.service
}

function main
{
   ## Installations can be offloaded to AMI
   install_java
   install_es
   install_cerebro

   handle_mounts
   start_apps
}

main

 

Add EBS volume in the final stage of the Elastigroup creation with the desired size

"blockDeviceMappings": [
  {
    "deviceName": "/dev/xvdc",
    "ebs": {
      "deleteOnTermination": false,
      "volumeSize": 50,
      "volumeType": "gp2"
    }
  }
],

Hit “Create” and wait for the masters to launch.

Elastigroup for ElasticSearch Data Nodes

Use the same steps as above except a slightly different user-data script due do master/data nodes difference.

No need to maintain specific private IPs.

Data node user-data:

#!/usr/bin/env bash

device="/dev/xvdc"
data_path="/var/lib/elasticsearch"
sleep_sec=10
elastic_pckg="elasticsearch-6.2.4-1.noarch"
logical_volume="lv_elastic01"
volume_group="vg_elastic01"
device_lv="/dev/${volume_group}/${logical_volume}"


function install_java
{
   echo "Install jdk"
   rpm_file_src="http://download.oracle.com/otn-pub/java/jdk/8u131-b11/d54c1d3a095b4ff2b6607d096fa80163/jdk-8u131-linux-x64.rpm"
   rpm_file_dest="/tmp/jdk-8u131-linux-x64.rpm"
   wget --no-check-certificate --no-cookies --header "Cookie: oraclelicense=accept-securebackup-cookie" -O "$rpm_file_dest" "$rpm_file_src"
   rpm -Uvh "$rpm_file_dest"
}

function install_es
{
   echo "Install elasticsearch"
   cat > /etc/yum.repos.d/elasticsearch.repo << 'EOF'
[elasticsearch-6.x]
name=Elasticsearch repository for 6.x packages
baseurl=https://artifacts.elastic.co/packages/6.x/yum
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=https://artifacts.elastic.co/GPG-KEY-elasticsearch
enabled=1
autorefresh=1
type=rpm-md
EOF

   yum install $elastic_pckg -y

   echo "Update elasticsearch config"
   cat > /etc/elasticsearch/elasticsearch.yml << 'EOF'
# ======================== Elasticsearch Configuration =========================
# ---------------------------------- Cluster -----------------------------------
# Use a descriptive name for your cluster:
cluster.name: es-test
# ------------------------------------ Node ------------------------------------
node.name: ${HOSTNAME}
node.master: false
# ----------------------------------- Paths ------------------------------------
# Path to directory where to store the data (separate multiple locations by comma):
path.data: /var/lib/elasticsearch
# Path to log files:
path.logs: /var/log/elasticsearch
# ---------------------------------- Network -----------------------------------
# Set the bind address to a specific IP (IPv4 or IPv6):
network.host: 0.0.0.0
# --------------------------------- Discovery ----------------------------------
#
# Pass an initial list of hosts to perform discovery when new node is started:
# The default list of hosts is ["127.0.0.1", "[::1]"]
discovery.zen.ping.unicast.hosts: ["10.14.11.70", "10.14.11.71", "10.14.11.72"]

# Prevent the "split brain" by configuring the majority of nodes (total number of master-eligible nodes / 2 + 1):
discovery.zen.minimum_master_nodes: 2
EOF

   ## Update jvm Xmx/Xms according to inst. type
   #grep Xm /etc/elasticsearch/jvm.options
}


function handle_mounts
{
   echo "Wait until we have the EBS attached (new or reattached)"
   ls -l "$device" > /dev/null
   while [ $? -ne 0 ]; do
       echo "Device $device is still NOT available, sleeping..."
       sleep $sleep_sec
       ls -l "$device" > /dev/null
   done
   echo "Device $device is available"


   echo "Check if the instance is new or recycled"
   lsblk "$device" --output FSTYPE | grep LVM > /dev/null
   if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then
       echo "Device $device is new, creating LVM & formatting"

       pvcreate "$device"
       pvdisplay

       vgcreate vg_elastic01 "$device"
       vgdisplay

       lvcreate -l 100%FREE -n "$logical_volume" "$volume_group"
       lvdisplay

       mkfs -t ext4 $device_lv

   else
       echo "Device $device was reattached"
   fi

   echo "Add to entry to fstab"
   UUID=$(blkid $device_lv -o value | head -1)
   echo "UUID=$UUID $data_path    ext4 _netdev 0 0" >> /etc/fstab


   echo "Make sure mount is available"
   mount -a > /dev/null
   while [ $? -ne 0 ]; do
       echo "Error mounting all filesystems from /etc/fstab, sleeping..."
       sleep 2;
       mount -a > /dev/null
   done
   chown -R elasticsearch:elasticsearch "$data_path"
   echo "Mounted all filesystems from /etc/fstab, proceeding"
}

function start_apps
{
   echo "Start elasticsearch"
   systemctl start elasticsearch.service

}

function main
{
   ## Installations can be offloaded to AMI
   install_java
   install_es

   handle_mounts
   start_apps
}

main

Post Installation

Cerebro UI

Run Cerebro on one of the master nodes

$ systemctl start docker.service
$ docker run -d -p 9000:9000 --name cerebro yannart/cerebro:latest

Grant access to Cerebro on port 9000

Enable Delayed Shard Allocation

An important piece of the story hers is to enable delayed shard allocation, for better support of shard replacement when Spot Instances are being replaced.

curl -X PUT "localhost:9200/_all/_settings" -H 'Content-Type: application/json' -d'
{
  "settings": {
    "index.unassigned.node_left.delayed_timeout": "7m"
  }

Amiram Shachar
Spotinst, Founder and CEO